4 2 2016

Criminal networks and governance: a study of Lyari Karachi

Sumrin Kalia

Abstract


Karachi, the mega city and the commercial hub of Pakistan, has become one of the most dangerous cities of the world in past few decades. This paper uses Lyari, a violent neighborhood in Karachi, as a case study to explore the underlying causes of conflict. The paper builds the argument that political management of crime has created spaces for the criminals to extend their criminal networks. Through connections with state officials and civic leaders, they appropriate state power and social capital that make their ongoing criminal activities possible. I present a genealogical analysis of politico-criminal relationships in Lyari and then examine the interactions of the criminals with the society through qualitative field research. The article also demonstrates how such criminals develop parallel governance systems that transcend state authority, use violence to impose order and work with civic leaders to establish their legitimacy. It is argued that these 'sub-national conflicts' have not only restrained the authority of the government, but also curtailed accountability mechanisms that rein in political management of crime.


Full Text:

PDF (506KB)

References


References:

Ali, Naziha Syed. Dawn News; Proxy wars continue in Lyari . 2014. http://www.dawn.com/news/695415/proxy-wars-continue-in-lyari (accessed March 20, 2015).

Anwar, Nausheen H. "Urban transformations: brokers, collaborative governance and community building in Karachi’s periphery." South Asian History and Culture 5, no. 1 (2014): 75-92.

Arias, Enrique Desmond. "The Dynamics of Criminal Governance: Networks and Social Order in Rio de Janeiro ." Journal of Latin American Studies 38, no. 2 (2006): 293-325.

Asdar Ali, Kamran. “The Strength of the Street meets the Strength of the State: The1972 Labor Struggle in Karachi.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 37, no. 1 (2005): 83-107.

Dawn. Dawn News; Former SHO Javed Baloch discloses details of Arshad Pappu's murder. 2013. http://www.dawn.com/news/1046479 (accessed February 26, 2015).

—. Dawn News; Karachi; Lyari wonders how Rehman Dakait lost politician's love. 2009. http://www.dawn.com/news/975198/karachi-lyari-wonders-how-rehman-dakait-lost-politicians-love (accessed March 16, 2015).

—. Dawn News; Rangers raid MQM HQ in Karachi; detain member of Rabta Committee. 2015. http://www.dawn.com/news/1168840 (accessed March 11, 2015).

Dietz, Christopher R. Browning & Robert D. "The Paradox of Social Organization: Networks, Collective Efficacy, and Violent Crime in Urban Neighborhoods." Social Forces 83, no. 2 (2004): 503-534.

Express. The Express Tribune. 2015. http://tribune.com.pk/story/847679/law-and-order-lyari-traders-protest-extortion/ (accessed March 31, 2015).

Gayer, Laurent. "Guns, Slums, and “Yellow Devils”: A Genealogy of Urban Conflicts in Karachi, Pakistan." Modern Asian Studies 41, no. 3 (2007): 515-544.

—. Karachi: Ordered Disorder and the Struggle for the City. New York : Oxford University Press, 2014.

Guardian. The Guardian. 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/29/altaf-hussain-mqm-leader-pakistan-london (accessed March 17, 2015).

Haq, Farhat. “Rise of the MQM in Pakistan: Politics of Ethnic Mobilization.” Asian Survey 35, no. 11 (1995): 990-1004.

Hasan, Arif. "The political and institutional blockages to Good Governance: The Case of Lyari Expressway in Karachi ." Environment and Urbanization 17, no. 2 (Oct 2006): 127-141.

Imtiaz, Huma. The Express Tribune; Kingdom of Fear. 2010. http://tribune.com.pk/story/27844/kingdom-of-fear/ (accessed March 15, 2015).

Kaleem, Moosa. Inside Lyari; Herald Beta. June 18, 2012. http://herald.dawn.com/2012/06/18/inside-lyari-2.html (accessed February 24, 2015).

Khan, Tahir Hasan. The News International; Rehman Dakait and the Politics of Lyari. 2009. http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=194607&Cat=4&dt=8/24/2009 (accessed March 15, 2015).

Mandhro, Sameer. The Express Tribune; Interpol arrests Uzair Baloch in Dubai. 2014. http://tribune.com.pk/story/814399/interpol-arrests-uzair-baloch-in-dubai/ (accessed March 27, 2015).

—. The Express Tribune; Political games: Upset with PPP, Lyari looks towards PTI. 2014. http://tribune.com.pk/story/754618/political-games-upset-with-ppp-lyari-looks-towards-pti/ (accessed March 21, 2015).

News, The. The News International; The life and crimes of Dakait. 2009. http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=192493&Cat=4&dt=8/11/2009 (accessed March 13, 2015).

Poot, Edward R Kleemans & Christianne. "Criminal Careers in Organized Crime and Social Opportunity Structure." European Journal of Criminology 5, no. 1 (2008): 69-98.

Supreme Court of Pakistan, SUO MOTU CASE NO. 16. "www.supremecourt.gov.pk." 10 2011. http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/web/user_files/File/SMC16of2011_detailed_judgment.pdf (accessed March 15, 2015).

Tunio, Hafeez. The Express Tribune; ECP results show PTI second largest in Karachi. 2013. http://tribune.com.pk/story/548862/ecp-results-show-pti-second-largest-in-karachi/ (accessed March 14, 2015).

UNODC. World Drug Report . United Nations, 2012.

Viqar, Sarwat. "Constructing Lyari: place, governance and identity in a Karachi neighborhood." South Asian History and Culture 5, no. 3 (2014): 365-383.

Zaidi, S. Akbar. "Politics, Institutions, Poverty: The Case of Karachi." Economic and Political Weekly 32, no. 51 (Dec 20-26 1997): 3282-3293.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




ISSN 2050-487X
Privacy and cookies Take Down Policy