Reading continuities and change in vernacular architecture among the Hao Naga
The Hao (Tangkhul) people are among the largest of the Naga tribes, and are settled on either side of the India and Myanmar border. Prior to the arrival of the British, Hao villages were largely peripheral to the modernising forces that brought about significant change in political centres such as Imphal, the capital of Manipur. The increasing presence of the British administrative apparatus along with the advent of Christianity introduced significant changes most notably western forms of education and governance. The establishment of institutions at variance with indigenous forms created hybridisations in both religious and social arenas, significantly altering local Hao world views. Forms of visual and material culture absorb new influences, and this paper presents types, meanings, and motifs associated with social status among the Hao as indexed in vernacular architecture.
Full Text:PDF (1MB)
Dorson, Richard M. Ed. (1972). Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dundes, Alan (1978). Essays in Folkloristics. Meerut: Ved Prakash Vatuk Folklore Institute.
Handoo, Jawaharlal (2000). Theoretical Essays in Indian Folklore. Mysore: Zooni Publications.
Horam, M. (1977). Social and Cultural Life of Nagas (The Tangkhul Nagas). Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation.
Prown, Jules David (1982). “Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method” in Winterthur Portfolio Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 1982) pp.1-19. (available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1180761).
Rathje, William L. (1979). “Modern Material Culture Studies” in Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol.2 (1979), pp.1-37.
Ruivah, Khashim (1993). Social Change Among the Nagas (Tangkhul). New Delhi: Cosmo Publications.
Safiruddin, Mohammad (2005). Folk Houses in Sindh: A Study in Cultural Geography. PhD Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Karachi. (Available at http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/755S.pdf).
Shimray, Sothing W.A. (2000). The Tangkhuls. Imphal: Published by the author.
Thong, Joseph S. & Phanenmo Kath (2011). Glimpses of Naga Legacy and Culture. Kerala: Society for Naga Students’ Welfare.
- » https://scholar.google.com.pk
- » https://www.google.co.in/
- » Reading continuities and change in vernacular architecture among the Hao Naga